Related Work in 3GPP
- 3GPP TR 26.918 provides an introduction to Virtual Reality and 3GPP TS 26.118 defines Virtual Reality Media Profiles for omnidirectional 3DoF media.
- 3GPP TR 22.842 on Network Controlled Interactive Service (NCIS) analyses several use cases of NCIS as follows:
- New Requirements for VR Based NCIS Service
- Cloud Rendering for Games
- High Speed Scenario
- IoE Based Social Networking
- Communication within NCIS group
- In context of Release-17, 3GPP work is ongoing in order to identify the integration of edge processing in 5G systems. 3GPP TR 23.748 defines modifications to 5GS system architecture to enhance Edge Computing. This work is currently in study phase, defining Key Issues and scope for Release-17. In addition, in 3GPP TR 23.758 a new set of application layer interfaces for Edge Computing is identified that may potentially be useful for integration edge computing.
Related Work in MPEG
In October 2016, MPEG initiated a new project on “Coded Representation of Immersive Media”, referred to as MPEG-I. The proposal was justified by the emergence of new devices and services that allow users to be immersed in media and to navigate in multimedia scenes. It was observed that a fragmented market exists for such devices and services, notably for content that is delivered “over the top”. The project is motivated by the lack of common standards that do not enable interoperable services and devices providing immersive and navigable experiences. The MPEG-I project is expected to enable existing services in an interoperable manner and to support the evolution of interoperable immersive media services. Enabled by the Parts of this Standard, end users are expected to be able to access interoperable content and services, and acquire devices that allow them to consume these.
After the launch of the project, several phases, activities, and projects have been launched that enable services considered in MPEG-I.
The project is divided in tracks that enable different core experiences. Each of the phases is supported by key activities in MPEG, namely in systems, video, audio and 3D graphics-related technologies.
Core technologies as well as additional enablers are implemented in parts of the MPEG-I standard. Currently the following 14 parts are under development:
- Part 1 – Immersive Media Architectures
- Part 2 – Omnidirectional MediA Format
- Part 3 – Versatile Video Coding
- Part 4 – Immersive Audio Coding
- Part 5 – Video-Based Point Cloud Coding (V-PCC)
- Part 6 – Immersive Media Metrics
- Part 7 – Immersive Media Metadata
- Part 8 – Network-Based Media Processing
- Part 9 – Geometry Point Cloud Coding (G-PCC)
- Part 10 – Carriage of Video-based Point Cloud Coding Data
- Part 11 – Implementation Guidelines for Network-based Media Processing
- Part 12 - Carriage of Geometry-based Point Cloud Coding Data
- Part 13 – Multi-Decoder Video Decoding Interface for Immersive Media
- Part 14 – Scene Description for MPEG Media
In addition, other technical components may be provided in existing MPEG specifications outside of MPEG-I (e.g., HEVC and AVC) in order to create interoperable immersive experiences.
Related Work in Khronos
Khronos creates open standards for 3D graphics, Virtual and Augmented Reality, Parallel Computing, Neural Networks, and Vision Processing. Specifically relevant for the work on XR are the following activities:
- OpenGL® is the most widely adopted 2D and 3D graphics API in the industry, bringing thousands of applications to a wide variety of computer platforms. It is window-system and operating-system independent as well as network-transparent. OpenGL enables developers of software for PC, workstation, and supercomputing hardware to create high-performance, visually compelling graphics software applications, in markets such as CAD, content creation, energy, entertainment, game development, manufacturing, medical, and virtual reality. OpenGL exposes all the features of the latest graphics hardware.
- Vulkan is a new generation graphics and compute API that provides high-efficiency, cross-platform access to modern GPUs used in a wide variety of devices from PCs and consoles to mobile phones and embedded platforms.
- OpenXR is an open standard that provides high-performance access to Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR)—collectively known as XR—platforms and devices.
- glTF™ (GL Transmission Format) is a specification for the efficient transmission and loading of 3D scenes and models by applications. glTF minimizes both the size of 3D assets, and the runtime processing needed to unpack and use those assets. glTF defines an extensible, common publishing format for 3D content tools and services that streamlines authoring workflows and enables interoperable use of content across the industry.
Related work in W3C WebXR
The WebXR Device API Specification provides interfaces to VR and AR hardware to allow developers to build compelling, comfortable VR/AR experiences on the web. It also provides a link to WebXR Device API Explained.